Surah 5. Al-Ma’ida (The Table, The Table Spread)
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
1. O ye who believe! fulfil (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals, with the exceptions named: But animals of the chase are forbidden while ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb: for Allah doth command according to His will and plan.
2. O ye who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands that mark out such animals, nor the people resorting to the sacred house, seeking of the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. But when ye are clear of the sacred precincts and of pilgrim garb, ye may hunt and let not the hatred of some people in (once) shutting you out of the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part). Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancour: fear Allah. for Allah is strict in punishment.
3. Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah. that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, Allah is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
4. They ask thee what is lawful to them (as food). Say: lawful unto you are (all) things good and pure: and what ye have taught your trained hunting animals (to catch) in the manner directed to you by Allah. eat what they catch for you, but pronounce the name of Allah over it: and fear Allah. for Allah is swift in taking account.
5. This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them. (Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time,- when ye give them their due dowers, and desire chastity, not lewdness, nor secret intrigues if any one rejects faith, fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).
6. O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.
7. And call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you, and His covenant, which He ratified with you, when ye said: “We hear and we obey”: And fear Allah, for Allah knoweth well the secrets of your hearts.
8. O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.
9. To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness hath Allah promised forgiveness and a great reward.
10. Those who reject faith and deny our signs will be companions of Hell-fire.
11. O ye who believe! Call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you when certain men formed the design to stretch out their hands against you, but ((Allah)) held back their hands from you: so fear Allah. And on Allah let believers put (all) their trust.
Jubayr bin Nufayr said, “I performed Hajj once and visited `A’ishah and she said to me, `O Jubayr! Do you read (or memorize) Al-Ma’idah ‘ I answered `Yes.’ She said, `It was the last Surah to be revealed. Therefore, whatever permissible matters you find in it, then consider (treat) them permissible. And whatever impermissible matters you find in it, then consider (treat) them impermissible.”’ (Al Hakim, Ahmad, An Nasai)
Surat Al-Ma’idah is Madinan, although some of its ayahs were revealed in Makkah after hajjat alwada’ (the farewell hajj that the Prophet (SAWS) performed). It was revealed after surat Al-Fath and comes in the Qur’an after surat An-Nisa. It contains 120 ayahs and it is the only surah in the Qur’an that begins with “O you who have believed…”
The objective of the surah is made clear in the first call as Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, “O you who have believed, fulfill your contracts…” (5:1); thus urging Muslims to fulfill their commitments. The surah indicates all kinds of commitments, which range from mankind’s responsibility on earth, and moves on to obedience matters, such as praying and wearing hijab (Islamic veil). It also points out abstaining from forbidden deeds, such as drinking alcohol and possessing illegally- obtained money.
The objective of the surah is starting to become clearer; now that religion, its teachings, and its principles are complete, fulfill your obligations to Allah (SWT), maintain them, and acknowledge what religion considers halal and shun what it considers haram. It is actually the surah of halal and haram in Islam.
Since surat Al-Ma’idah handles the issue of what’s lawful and what’s not in Islam. It is the only surah that includes the five Islamic legal intents:
– Protection of religion
– Protection of soul
– Protection of mind
– Protection of honor
– Protection of money
The surah revolve around the following main ideas that demonstrate a great deal of both, halal and haram principles:
1. Food, drink, quarry and slaughter.
2. Family and marriage
. 3. Faith and kaffarat (prescribed acts of charity or fasting performed in
repentance of doing an unlawful act).
4. Principles of worship.
5. Verdicts, judiciary rules, testimonies, and the realization of justice.
6. Organizing Muslim relations with other religions